CONSTRUCTIVE CHANGE CLAIMS
As an expert Construction Claims Consultant, Holloway Consulting has assisted many of our construction owner and contractors clients in the identification and preparation of and in defense of construction claims under both public and private sector contracts involving the performance of additional work.
Since changes generally involve additional work as well, it was understandable that boards, panels and courts could characterize many such claims as “Constructive Change Claims” – meaning that, although the procedures of the contract’s Changes clause probably were not used, the results of the Government’s or Owner’s or General Contractor’s action or inaction were the same as if a formal contract change order or change request had been issued.
CONSTRUCTIVE CHANGES – TYPES
Types of Constructive Change Claims include:
1. Contract Interpretation,
2. Interference and failure to cooperate,
4. Failure to disclose critical information (Superior Knowledge),
CONSTRUCTIVE CHANGE CLAIMS – THEORY
Constructive Change theory allows the contractor to be paid for changes to the manner, method, or scope of work, even where there is no formal Change Order. Recovery may be allowed under other contract adjustment clauses when there is some action or inaction by the owner or owner’s agent that amounts to an order or directive to the contractor. The theory has been well established in federal contract forums, and has gained acceptance in most other jurisdictions, under custom and standard form construction industry contracts.
Constructive Changes typically result from oral or written directions issued by the owner to the general contractor (or by the general contractor to a subcontractor). If the directive modifies the terms of the contract and the contractor reasonably relies on the apparent authority of the individual, then the contractor may recover the additional costs associated with the direction as a change to the contract.
For example, in a recent Holloway case wherein we worked as Construction Claims Consultants and Construction Expert Witnesses, the contractor was entitled to recover loss of labor efficiency damages for government-caused rescheduling of the work and performing out of sequence, which resulted from a grading change directed by the contracting officer. The change was deemed a Constructive Change and the contractor was allowed to recover its claimed loss of labor efficiency due to a disorderly operation. The court allowed an equitable adjustment for the labor losses that were the direct and necessary result of the Constructive Change involving labor disruption.
READ MORE ABOUT HOLLOWAY CONSULTING GROUP’S CONSTRUCTION CLAIMS CONSULTING AND CLAIMS EXPERTS CASES
The Holloway Consulting Group, LLC
Construction Claims Consultants – Construction Expert Witnesses
12081 W. Alameda Pkwy., #450
Lakewood, CO 80228-2701
Denver Phone: (303) 984-1941
International Toll Free: (888) 545-0666
Fax: (303) 716-0432